The US aimed to foster resistance in occupied territories through the Office of Strategic Services (OSS - the precursor to the Central Intelligence Agency). Developed with the help of Britain’s Special Operations Executive (SOE) in 1941, and established officially in 1942, the OSS employed roughly 13,000 staff around the world, including many agents posted in Europe.
The US also accepted between 180,000 and 220,000 European refugees between 1933 and 1945, overall receiving more people fleeing the Nazis than any other country during the war. However, the country’s immigration policies reflected its racism, favouring those from Northern and Western Europe, and it was not until 22 January 1944 that the War Refugee Board was established to rescue and provide relief for Jews and other groups persecuted by the Nazis. There were, however, some remarkable grassroots efforts from American citizens to aid those facing persecution in Europe.